The State of Knowledge of Outdoor Orientation Programs

Academic Article


  • Outdoor orientation programs represent a prominent area of experiential education with over 25,000 participants annually. More than 191 outdoor orientation programs currently operate in the United States and Canada. The research examining outdoor orientation programs consists of 25 peer-reviewed published studies and 11 dissertations. A new theory explaining the success of these programs has emerged based on research and the belief that students experience a special sense of belongingness promoted by social dynamics found in these programs.
  • Authors

  • Bell, Brent
  • Gass, Michael A
  • Nafziger, Christopher S
  • Starbuck, J David
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • March 2014
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Start Page

  • 31
  • End Page

  • 45
  • Volume

  • 37
  • Issue

  • 1