Vibrio vulnificus, an autochthonous inhabitant of the estuarine environment, was detected in water and oysters from the Great Bay Estuary System of New Hampshire and Maine. Previously, it had not been detected north of Boston Harbor on the east coast of the United States. V. vulnificus was detected in water and shellfish samples at five out of ten sites, and only in areas that were not open to recreational shellfishing. Although samples were collected from May into December, V. vulnificus was only detected in shellfish in July and August. Water sampling began in August, and V. vulnificus persisted at one site into October.