Flux Enhancements of Field-Aligned Low-Energy O+ Ion (FALEO) in the Inner Magnetosphere: A Possible Source of Warm Plasma Cloak and Oxygen Torus

Academic Article


  • AbstractFlux enhancements of field‐aligned low‐energy O+ ion (FALEO) are simultaneously observed by Arase, Van Allen Probes A and B in the nightside inner magnetosphere during 05–07 UT on September 22, 2018. FALEOs appear after a magnetic dipolarization signature with approximately 6–20 min delay. It has the energy‐dispersion signature from a few keV to ∼100 eV only in the direction parallel to the magnetic field at Arase, while it decreases its energy from a few keV down to 10 eV in both the parallel and antiparallel directions at Probes A and B. We perform a numerical simulation to trace trajectories of test O+ ions in a model magnetosphere, which are launched from above the ionosphere 3–15 min after a substorm. Flying virtual satellites that have the same orbits as the real satellites, we create virtual energy‐time spectrograms of O+ ions to compare with the observed ones. Results show a very good correspondence between them, indicating that FALEOs originate from ionospheric O+ ions that are extracted from the upper ionosphere at substorm onset and flow along the magnetic field toward the geomagnetic equator. It is also revealed that 3–9 hr after their launch, test O+ ions less than 400 eV have a spatial distribution in the inner magnetosphere which is similar to those of the warm plasma cloak and the oxygen torus. We therefore conclude that FALEO is a source of those cold ion populations.
  • Authors

  • Nose, M
  • Matsuoka, A
  • Miyoshi, Y
  • Asamura, K
  • Hori, T
  • Teramoto, M
  • Shinohara, I
  • Hirahara, M
  • Kletzing, CA
  • Smith, Charles
  • MacDowall, RJ
  • Spence, Harlan
  • Reeves, GD
  • Gjerloev, JW
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • March 2022
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)


  • 127
  • Issue

  • 3