Solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) brings major advancements in measuring terrestrial photosynthesis. Several recent studies have evaluated the potential of SIF retrievals from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) in estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) based on GPP data from eddy covariance (EC) flux towers. However, the spatially and temporally sparse nature of OCO-2 data makes it challenging to use these data for many applications from the ecosystem to the global scale. Here, we developed a new global ‘OCO-2’ SIF data set (GOSIF) with high spatial and temporal resolutions (i.e., 0.05°, 8-day) over the period 2000–2017 based on a data-driven approach. The predictive SIF model was developed based on discrete OCO-2 SIF soundings, remote sensing data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and meteorological reanalysis data. Our model performed well in estimating SIF (R2 = 0.79, root mean squared error (RMSE) = 0.07 W m−2 μm−1 sr−1). The model was then used to estimate SIF for each 0.05° × 0.05° grid cell and each 8-day interval for the study period. The resulting GOSIF product has reasonable seasonal cycles, and captures the similar seasonality as both the coarse-resolution OCO-2 SIF (1°), directly aggregated from the discrete OCO-2 soundings, and tower-based GPP. Our SIF estimates are highly correlated with GPP from 91 EC flux sites (R2 = 0.73, p < 0.001). They capture the expected spatial and temporal patterns and also have remarkable ability to highlight the crop areas with the highest daily productivity across the globe. Our product also allows us to examine the long-term trends in SIF globally. Compared with the coarse-resolution SIF that was directly aggregated from OCO-2 soundings, GOSIF has finer spatial resolution, globally continuous coverage, and a much longer record. Our GOSIF product is valuable for assessing terrestrial photosynthesis and ecosystem function, and benchmarking terrestrial biosphere and Earth system models.