Interhemispheric observations of impulsive nitrate enhancements associated with the four large ground-level solar cosmic ray events (1940-1950)

Academic Article


  • We present a compelling similarity of impulsive nitrate enhancements observed in polar ice from the northern and southern hemispheres. This analysis concentrates on the period 1940–1950, during which time the first four recorded solar cosmic ray ground-level enhancements (GLEs) occurred. GLEs are strong solar proton events. We show that large and sudden enhancements in the nitrate records from both hemispheres were observed within weeks following the recorded solar cosmic ray ground-level event. The observation of impulsive nitrate enhancements simultaneously in both hemispheres shortly after a large fluence solar proton event is strong evidence in support of a causal connection and argues strongly for rapid transport of atmospheric nitrates generated through the polar atmosphere by energetic solar proton events.
  • Authors

  • Kepko, L
  • Spence, Harlan
  • Smart, DF
  • Shea, MA
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • December 2009
  • Keywords

  • GLE
  • Ice cores
  • Nitrates
  • Solar cosmic rays
  • Solar flares
  • Solar proton events
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Start Page

  • 1840
  • End Page

  • 1845
  • Volume

  • 71
  • Issue

  • 17-18