The mechanisms underlying cell protection from cryoinjury are not yet fully understood. Recent biological studies have addressed cryopreserved cell survival but have not correlated the cryoprotection effectiveness with the impact of cryoprotectants on the most important cell structure, the nucleus, and the freeze/thaw process. We identified changes of cell nuclei states caused by different types of cryoprotectants and associate them with alterations of the freeze/thaw process in cells. Namely, we investigated both higher-order chromatin structure and nuclear envelope integrity as possible markers of freezing and thawing processes. Moreover, we analyzed in detail the relationship between nuclear envelope integrity, chromatin condensation, freeze/thaw processes in cells, and cryopreservation efficiency for dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, trehalose, and antifreeze protein. Our interdisciplinary study reveals how changes in cell nuclei induced by cryoprotectants affect the ability of cells to withstand freezing and thawing and how nuclei changes correlate with processes during freezing and thawing. Our results contribute to the deeper fundamental understanding of the freezing processes, notably in the cell nucleus, which will expand the applications and lead to the rational design of cryoprotective materials and protocols.