During anemia erythropoiesis is bolstered by several factors including KIT ligand, oncostatin-M, glucocorticoids, and erythropoietin. Less is understood concerning factors that limit this process. Experiments performed using dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase-3 (DYRK3) knock-out and transgenic mice reveal that erythropoiesis is attenuated selectively during anemia. DYRK3 is restricted to erythroid progenitor cells and testes. DYRK3-/- mice exhibited essentially normal hematological profiles at steady state and reproduced normally. In response to hemolytic anemia, however, reticulocyte production increased severalfold due to DYRK3 deficiency. During 5-fluorouracil-induced anemia, both reticulocyte and red cell formation in DYRK3-/- mice were elevated. In short term transplant experiments, DYRK3-/- progenitors also supported enhanced erythroblast formation, and erythropoietic advantages due to DYRK3-deficiency also were observed in 5-fluorouracil-treated mice expressing a compromised erythropoietin receptor EPOR-HM allele. As analyzed ex vivo, DYRK3-/- erythroblasts exhibited enhanced CD71posTer119pos cell formation and 3HdT incorporation. Transgenic pA2gata1-DYRK3 mice, in contrast, produced fewer reticulocytes during hemolytic anemia, and pA2gata1-DYRK3 progenitors were compromised in late pro-erythroblast formation ex vivo. Finally, as studied in erythroid K562 cells, DYRK3 proved to effectively inhibit NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) transcriptional response pathways and to co-immunoprecipitate with NFATc3. Findings indicate that DYRK3 attenuates (and possibly apportions) red cell production selectively during anemia.