Physical maps for Frankia strains CcI3, EAN1pec and EuI1c chromosomes were constructed by the use of macrorestriction analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The restriction enzymes AseI, PmeI, SwaI and SspI were used to cut the Frankia chromosome into a limited number of large fragments and for double digestions. The genomes sizes, as determined by the addition of the estimated fragment sizes, were 5430 ± 35 kb, 9101 ± 109 kb and 8105 ± 842 kb for strains CcI3, EAN1pec and EuI1c, respectively. A complete physical map was achieved by the analysis of PFGE for the single and double digestions and by two-dimensional PFGE to determine doublets and overlapping fragments. For strain EuI1c, a partial genetic map was also constructed by positioning the 16S rRNA, glnII, glnA and hboO genes on the physical map. PFGE analysis of DNA with and without proteinase K treatment together with the other results suggested a circular genome.