Twenty-four aphasic, nine brain-damaged, and eight non-brain-damaged patients were tested for their ability to associate odors with visual targets. The results of the experiment show that lesions producing aphasia interfere with the ability to match an odor to a directly corresponding visual target. As aphasics with anterior and posterior lesions performed at similar levels in this task, it was not possible to conclude that the observed deficits were specifically related to temporal lobe functions. The severity of the deficit was greater for more massively lesioned aphasics. The exact nature of the deficit was not clear, but review of the literature and differential results obtained for the two experimental tasks suggest that aphasic lesions may interefere with odor identification.