Neisserial lipooligosaccharides (LOSs) are a family of complex cell surface glycolipids. We used mass spectrometry techniques (electrospray ionization, collision-induced dissociation, and multiple step), combined with fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis monosaccharide composition analysis, to determine the structure of the two low-molecular-mass LOS molecules (LOSI and LOSII) expressed by Neisseria subflava 44. We determined that LOSI contains one glucose on both the alpha and beta chains. LOSII is structurally related to LOSI and differs from it by the addition of a hexose (either glucose or galactose) on the alpha chain. LOSI and LOSII were able to bind monoclonal antibody (MAb) 25-1-LC1 when analyzed by Western blotting experiments. We used a set of genetically defined Neisseria gonorrhoeae mutants that expressed single defined LOS epitopes and a group of Neisseria meningitidis strains that expresses chemically defined LOS components to determine the structures recognized by MAb 25-1-LC1. We found that extensions onto the beta-chain glucose of LOSI block the recognition by this MAb, as does further elongation from the LOSII alpha chain. The LOSI structure was determined to be the minimum structure that is recognized by MAb 25-1-LC1.