Gender, social status, and emotional reliance.

Academic Article


  • Past research has suggested the potential importance of considering emotional reliance, a dimension of interpersonal dependence, when addressing social and developmental risk factors for depression. Based on a probability sample of 1,393 adults aged 18-55 residing in Toronto, Canada, this paper addresses gender differences in emotional reliance and the relevance of emotional reliance in explaining the gender-depression association. We also explore link-ages between emotional reliance and status factors. Findings indicate that emotional reliance is significantly related to depression and that women report greater reliance than men, independent of social status factors like marital and parental status, education, income, and occupational prestige. Moreover, the positive association between emotional reliance and depression is greater for women. Several social status factors modify the relationship between gender and emotional reliance. Both education and occupational prestige reduce reliance, and are particularly beneficial in this regard for women. Marriage, on the other hand, increases emotional reliance, especially for men. We offer interpretations of this pattern of findings.
  • Authors

  • Turner, Heather
  • Turner, RJ
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • December 1999
  • Published In


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Dependency, Psychological
  • Depressive Disorder
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Interpersonal Relations
  • Male
  • Marriage
  • Middle Aged
  • Object Attachment
  • Occupations
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors
  • Social Class
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 10643161
  • Start Page

  • 360
  • End Page

  • 373
  • Volume

  • 40
  • Issue

  • 4