Atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside partially inhibited nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) by isolated vesicles of Frankia strain EAN1pec. Extracts of disrupted vesicles showed nitrogenase activity that was not affected by the inhibitors. The vesicles accumulated ATP by an atractyloside-sensitive mechanism. This inhibition of ATP uptake was reversed when vesicles were permeabilized by detergent. Uptake of ATP was inhibited by excess ATP and ADP, but not AMP or adenosine, and by a calcium-dependent ATPase inhibitor. Uptake was stimulated by calcium ions. Accumulation of ATP was accompanied by release of ADP and AMP from the vesicles. The ATP taken up by vesicles and cells grown with N2 as the nitrogen source was found in the corresponding cell pools only as ATP. The data indicate activity of an ATP-ADP translocase system in vesicles of this organism. The role of ATP translocation in the symbiosis between Frankia strain EAN1pec and plant root nodules is discussed.