An extensive biogeographical survey was conducted from 2004 through part of 2007 of nematodes associated with the edible fig, Ficus carica, in seven different regions of Turkey. Figs (syconia) were collected, dissected and harvested for nematodes from 308 apparently wild or naturalised F. carica trees along roadsides and trails. Nematode specimens were examined morphologically and molecular analyses of sequences of the D2/D3 expansion segments of the large subunit (LSU) rDNA and partial mitochondrial DNA COI (mtCOI) were done. Of the 308 fig trees, 150 (49%) were positive for what was morphologically confirmed to be Schistonchus caprifici. Figs on one tree in Kahramanmaras city, South East Turkey, were found to contain S. caprifici and dauer juveniles of what appears to be a diplogastrid nematode. Molecular analyses produced congruent trees for both sequenced loci supporting the hypothesis that S. caprifici from different locations in Turkey are part of a well supported clade with some inherent variability. No geographic patterns were observed for either locus suggesting that the sequences generated represent inherent intraspecific variation for S. caprifici and that human activities related to the culture of the edible fig have allowed for mixing of any previously allopatric lineages.