AbstractTemperate forests are affected by a wide variety of environmental factors that stem from human industrial and agricultural activities. In the north‐eastern US, important change agents include tropospheric ozone, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, elevated CO2, and historical human land use. Although each of these has received attention for its effects on forest carbon dynamics, integrated analyses that examine their combined effects are rare. To examine the relative importance of all of these factors on current forest growth and carbon balances, we included them individually and in combination in a forest ecosystem model that was applied over the period of 1700–2000 under different scenarios of air pollution and land use history.Results suggest that historical increases in CO2 and N deposition have stimulated forest growth and carbon uptake, but to different degrees following agriculture and timber harvesting. These differences resulted from the effects of each land use scenario on soil C and N pools and on the resulting degree of growth limitations by carbon vs. nitrogen. Including tropospheric ozone in the simulations offset a substantial portion of the increases caused by CO2 and N deposition. This result is particularly relevant given that ozone pollution is widespread across much of the world and because broad‐scale spatial patterns of ozone are coupled with patterns of nitrogen oxide emissions. This was demonstrated across the study region by a significant correlation between ozone exposure and rates of N deposition and suggests that the reduction of N‐induced carbon sinks by ozone may be a common phenomenon in other regions.Collectively, the combined effects of all physical and chemical factors we addressed produced growth estimates that were surprisingly similar to estimates obtained in the absence of any form of disturbance. The implication of this result is that intact forests may show relatively little evidence of altered growth since preindustrial times despite substantial changes in their physical and chemical environment.