We conducted 2 studies to determine the importance of several brain systems for remembering odorants in a go/no-go delayed nonmatching-to-sample (DNMTS) task. In Experiment 1, impairments were observed for lesions of pyriform cortex or (to a lesser extent) the lateral internal medullary lamina of thalamus. Lesions of the entorhinal cortex or the mediodorsal (MDn) or the paracentral and centrolateral (PC-CL) thalamic nuclei did not affect DNMTS. In Experiment 2, an impairment comparable to the pyriform lesion was observed for a lesion of the intralaminar nuclei (PC-CL plus the central medial nucleus) but not for a larger lesion of MDn. None of the lesions in either study affected the ability to learn a 2-choice odor discrimination using go/no-go procedures comparable with the DNMTS task.