On scalar curvature invariants in three dimensional spacetimes

Academic Article


  • We wish to construct a minimal set of algebraically independent scalar curvature invariants formed by the contraction of the Riemann (Ricci) tensor and its covariant derivatives up to some order of differentiation in three dimensional (3D) Lorentzian spacetimes. In order to do this we utilize the Cartan-Karlhede equivalence algorithm since, in general, all Cartan invariants are related to scalar polynomial curvature invariants. As an example we apply the algorithm to the class of 3D Szekeres cosmological spacetimes with comoving dust and cosmological constant $\Lambda$. In this case, we find that there are at most twelve algebraically independent Cartan invariants, including $\Lambda$. We present these Cartan invariants, and we relate them to twelve independent scalar polynomial curvature invariants (two, four and six, respectively, zeroth, first, and second order scalar polynomial curvature invariants).
  • Authors

  • Musoke, Nathan
  • McNutt, DD
  • Coley, AA
  • Brooks, DA
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • March 2016
  • Published In


  • Algebraic independence
  • Cartan-Karlhede
  • Equivalence
  • Scalar curvature invariants
  • Scalar polynomial curvature invariants
  • Three dimensions
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)


  • 48
  • Issue

  • 3