Energetic Proton Propagation and Acceleration Simulated for the Bastille Day Event of 2000 July 14

Academic Article


  • Abstract This work presents results from simulations of the 2000 July 14 (“Bastille Day”) solar proton event. We used the Energetic Particle Radiation Environment Model (EPREM) and the CORona-HELiosphere (CORHEL) software suite within the SPE Threat Assessment Tool (STAT) framework to model proton acceleration to GeV energies due to the passage of a CME through the low solar corona, and we compared the model results to GOES-08 observations. The coupled simulation models particle acceleration from 1 to 20 R , after which it models only particle transport. The simulation roughly reproduces the peak event fluxes and the timing and spatial location of the energetic particle event. While peak fluxes and overall variation within the first few hours of the simulation agree well with observations, the modeled CME moves beyond the inner simulation boundary after several hours. The model therefore accurately describes the acceleration processes in the low corona and resolves the sites of most rapid acceleration close to the Sun. Plots of integral flux envelopes from multiple simulated observers near Earth further improve the comparison to observations and increase potential for predicting solar particle events. Broken power-law fits to fluence spectra agree with diffusive acceleration theory over the low energy range. Over the high energy range, they demonstrate the variability in acceleration rate and mirror the interevent variability observed in solar cycle 23 ground-level enhancements. We discuss ways to improve STAT predictions, including using corrected GOES energy bins and computing fits to the seed spectrum. This paper demonstrates a predictive tool for simulating low-coronal solar energetic particle acceleration.
  • Authors

  • Young, Matt
  • Schwadron, Nathan
  • Gorby, Matthew
  • Linker, Jon
  • Caplan, Ronald M
  • Downs, Cooper
  • Torok, Tibor
  • Riley, Pete
  • Lionello, Roberto
  • Titov, Viacheslav
  • Mewaldt, Richard A
  • Cohen, Christina MS
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • March 2021
  • Has Subject Area


  • Solar activity
  • Solar coronal mass ejections
  • Solar energetic particles
  • Solar storm
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Start Page

  • 160
  • End Page

  • 160
  • Volume

  • 909
  • Issue

  • 2