Bearing Stake 1977 revisited: An understanding of ambient sound sources in the Indian Ocean.

Academic Article


  • A previous analysis of 1977 passive acoustic recordings in the Indian Ocean focused on sound pressure levels (SPLs) and showed that SPLs were slightly depth dependent and highly influenced by shipping activities [Wagstaff and Aitkenhead, IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 30(2), 295-302 (2005)]. Consequently, SPL alone does not provide a consistent comprehensive metric to compare among sites or with contemporary recordings in the same region. Therefore, a source separation analysis was devised and applied to identify the major sound source contributions at three Indian Ocean locations. Shipping noise was a major sound contributor in all sites, while the site with the most diverse number of sources was in the central Arabian Sea.
  • Authors

  • Al-Badrawi, Mahdi H
  • Miksis-Olds, Jennifer
  • Bradley, David L
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • October 2020
  • Has Subject Area

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 33138483
  • Start Page

  • EL320
  • Volume

  • 148
  • Issue

  • 4