Though peer victimization has received more attention than sibling victimization, they both have negative associations with mental health and may share common family origins. We explore whether there are common family characteristics (family climate, interparental conflict, parenting) in the prediction of sibling and peer victimization. We employ a nationally representative sample of U.S. children ages 5-17 (N = 2,659; 51% male, mean age = 10.60 years, 58% White). A telephone interview was conducted with a parent of children ages 5-9 and with children ages 10-17. Multinomial logistic regression showed that sibling and peer victimization are both associated with exposure to family adversity, family violence, and child maltreatment. Sibling victimization is also associated with inconsistent or harsh parenting. The odds ratios of the family characteristics of interest did not differ for sibling versus peer victimization, suggesting overlap in the family etiology of sibling and peer victimization. However, in this study, sibling victimization does appear to have unique associations to demographic characteristics; sibling victimization is most common in White and educated families. Knowledge of shared familial elements of sibling and peer victimization could benefit family violence and antibullying programs to promote positive interactions and lessen and stop aggression in both sibling and peer relationships. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).