Measured energy content of frequently purchased restaurant meals: multi-country cross sectional study.

Academic Article

Abstract

  • OBJECTIVE: To measure the energy content of frequently ordered meals from full service and fast food restaurants in five countries and compare values with US data. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: 223 meals from 111 randomly selected full service and fast food restaurants serving popular cuisines in Brazil, China, Finland, Ghana, and India were the primary sampling unit; 10 meals from five worksite canteens were also studied in Finland. The observational unit was frequently ordered meals in selected restaurants. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Meal energy content, measured by bomb calorimetry. RESULTS: Compared with the US, weighted mean energy of restaurant meals was lower only in China (719 (95% confidence interval 646 to 799) kcal versus 1088 (1002 to 1181) kcal; P<0.001). In analysis of variance models, fast food contained 33% less energy than full service meals (P<0.001). In Finland, worksite canteens provided 25% less energy than full service and fast food restaurants (mean 880 (SD 156) versus 1166 (298); P=0.009). Country, restaurant type, number of meal components, and meal weight predicted meal energy in a factorial analysis of variance (R2=0.62, P<0.001). Ninety four per cent of full service meals and 72% of fast food meals contained at least 600 kcal. Modeling indicated that, except in China, consuming current servings of a full service and a fast food meal daily would supply between 70% and 120% of the daily energy requirements for a sedentary woman, without additional meals, drinks, snacks, appetizers, or desserts. CONCLUSION: Very high dietary energy content of both full service and fast food restaurant meals is a widespread phenomenon that is probably supporting global obesity and provides a valid intervention target.
  • Authors

  • Roberts, Susan B
  • Das, Sai Krupa
  • Suen, Vivian Marques Miguel
  • Pihlajamäki, Jussi
  • Kuriyan, Rebecca
  • Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda
  • Taetzsch, Amy
  • Anderson, Alex K
  • Silver, Rachel E
  • Barger, Kathryn
  • Krauss, Amy
  • Karhunen, Leila
  • Zhang, Xueying
  • Hambly, Catherine
  • Schwab, Ursula
  • Triffoni-Melo, Andresa de Toledo
  • Taylor, Salima F
  • Economos, Christina
  • Kurpad, Anura V
  • Speakman, John R
  • Publication Date

  • December 12, 2018
  • Keywords

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Brazil
  • China
  • Consumer Behavior
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Energy Intake
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Fast Foods
  • Finland
  • Food Analysis
  • Ghana
  • Humans
  • India
  • Meals
  • Nutritional Requirements
  • Restaurants
  • United States
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Start Page

  • k4864
  • Volume

  • 363