Electrospun nanofibers (NFs) incorporated with catalytically active components have gained significant interest in chemical protective clothing. This is because of the desirable properties of the NFs combined with decontamination capability of the active component. Here, a series of metal hydroxide catalysts Ti(OH)
, Zr(OH)4, and Ce(OH)4 were incorporated into three different polymer NF systems. These new polymer/metal hydroxide composite NFs were then evaluated for their catalytic activity against a nerve agent simulant. Two methods were utilized to incorporate the metal hydroxides into the NFs. Method one used direct incorporation of Ti(OH)
, Zr(OH)4, and Ce(OH)4 catalysts, whereas method two employed incorporation of Ti(OH)
via a precursor molecule. Composite NFs prepared via method one resulted in greatly improved reaction rates over the respective pure metal hydroxides due to reduced aggregation of catalysts, with polymer/Ce(OH)4 composite NFs having the fastest reaction rates out of method one materials. Interestingly, composite samples prepared by method two yielded the fastest reaction rates overall. This is because of the homogeneous distribution of the metal hydroxide catalyst throughout the NF. This homogeneous distribution created a hydroxyl-decorated NF surface with a greater number of exposed active sites for catalysis. The hydroxyl-decorated NF surface also resulted in an unexpected highly wettable composite NF, which also was found to contribute to the observed reaction rates. These results are not only promising for applications in chemical protective clothing but also show great potential for application in areas which need highly wettable membrane materials. This includes areas such as separators, antifouling membranes, and certain medical applications.