Cyberbullying is a public health concern worldwide, including China. Cyberbullying victimization has negative effects on adolescents' health and mental health. This study examined the associations between cyberbullying victimization and several health and mental health problems among adolescents in China. A total of 3,232 adolescents aged 15 to 17 were recruited from 18 high schools in Xi'an, China, using a stratified random sampling method. Self-report data were collected via survey from adolescents in Xi'an, China. In total, 22.2% and 6.3% of the sample reported having experienced cyberbullying victimization in their lifetime and the past year, respectively. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression revealed that lifetime and preceding-year cyberbullying victimization was, respectively, significantly associated with poorer health (β = -1.58, p < .001; β = -2.22, p < .001), more severe depressive symptoms (β= 3.74, p < .001; β = 4.48, p < .001), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (β = 7.16, p < .001; β = 4.77, p < .001). Binary regression revealed that lifetime and preceding-year cyberbullying victimization was, respectively, significantly related to higher odds of problem drinking (odds ratio [OR] = 1.64, p < .001; OR = 1.84, p < .01), cigarette smoking (OR = 1.69, p < .001; OR = 2.21, p < .001), and gambling engagement (OR = 1.35, p < .05; OR = 1.97, p < .01). Furthermore, greater levels of parent-child attachment were a protective factor against the negative effects of cyberbullying victimization on adolescents' depressive symptoms (p < .001) and PTSD (p < .05). It is critical to develop and implement prevention and early intervention programs that are tailored to address the needs of adolescents in China. Parental involvement needs to be incorporated into interventions for cyberbullying victimization.