Protection through participation: Crowdsourced tap water quality monitoring for enhanced public health.

Academic Article


  • Lead contamination in municipal drinking water is a national public health issue and is generally the result of water contact with leaded distribution piping and on premise plumbing. As a result, the US Environmental Protection Agency's Lead and Copper Rule requires point of use sampling methods at a small fraction of consumer taps on the public water distribution system. While this approach is practical, it leaves large gaps of consumers without direct monitoring and protection. In response, a novel contest-based crowdsourcing study was conducted to engage the public in monitoring their own water quality at their home taps and study factors that shaped participation in drinking water monitoring. Participants were asked to collect samples of their household drinking water through social media postings, kiosks, and community events with the chance to win a cash prize. The project distributed approximately 800 sampling packets and received 147 packets from participants of which 93% had at least partially completed surveys. On average, private wells were found to have higher lead levels than the public water supply, and the higher lead levels were not attributed to older building age. There is also no statistical relevance between the participants' perceived and actual tap water quality. Survey responses indicated that citizens were motivated to participate in the project due to concerns about their own health and/or the health of their families. In contrast, participants reported that they were not motivated by the cash prize. This project helps inform future public engagement with water quality monitoring, create new knowledge about the influence of personal motivations for participation, and provide recommendations to help increase awareness of water quality issues.
  • Authors

  • Jakositz, Sarah
  • Pillsbury, Lana
  • Greenwood, Scott
  • Fahnestock, Maria Florencia
  • McGreavy, Bridie
  • Bryce, Julie
  • Mo, Weiwei
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • February 1, 2020
  • Published In

  • Water Research  Journal
  • Keywords

  • Citizen science/crowdsourcing
  • Crowdsourcing
  • Drinking Water
  • Drinking water quality monitoring
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Lead
  • Lead and copper rule
  • Lead in consumer taps
  • Participation motivations
  • Public Health
  • Public supply and private wells
  • Water Quality
  • Water Supply
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 31669904
  • Start Page

  • 115209
  • Volume

  • 169