Carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) are capable of breaking complex polysaccharides into simpler form. In plant-host-associated microorganisms CAZymes are known to be involved in plant cell wall degradation. However, the biology and evolution of Frankia CAZymes are largely unknown. In the present study, we took a genomic approach to evaluate the presence and putative roles of CAZymes in Frankia. The CAZymes were found to be potentially highly expressed (PHX) proteins and contained more aromatic amino acids, which increased their biosynthetic energy cost. These energy rich amino acids were present in the active sites of CAZymes aiding in their carbohydrate binding capacity. Phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses showed that, in Frankia strains with the capacity to nodulate host plants, CAZymes were evolving slower than the other PHX genes, whereas similar genes from non-nodulating (or ineffectively nodulating) Frankia strains showed little variation in their evolutionary constraints compared to other PHX genes. Thus, the present study revealed the persistence of a strong purifying selection on CAZymes of Frankia indicating their crucial role.