Public Parking Fees and Fines: A Survey of U.S. Cities

Academic Article


  • Researchers and practitioners who are interested in whether low parking costs may play a role in skewing travel toward the private automobile and away from transit have been hampered by the lack of systematic data on parking costs. This exploratory study reports on downtown public parking costs using a 2009 survey of public parking agencies in 107 U.S. cities. On average, on-street meters allowed parking for up to 2 hr and charged $1.00 per hour while off-street “commuter” lots charged $11 per day. Median fees for violating regulations ranged from $25 (meter violations) up to $200 (handicapped parking violations). Exploratory multivariable regression results found higher parking cost was associated with an increase in public transit miles in larger cities (adjusted for economic features of the city). This preliminary, exploratory study provides baseline data with which to compare future parking data that could inform parking policy’s influence on mode choice.
  • Authors

  • Auchincloss, Amy H
  • Weinberger, Rachel
  • Aytur, Semra
  • Namba, Alexa
  • Ricchezza, Andrew
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • January 2015
  • Published In


  • parking policy
  • pricing
  • public works policy
  • transportation
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Start Page

  • 49
  • End Page

  • 59
  • Volume

  • 20
  • Issue

  • 1