Esca is a complex grapevine trunk disease associated with fungal infection of the xylem. However, the inconstancy of external symptoms and the ability of esca-associated fungi to inhabit grapevines without causing apparent disease suggests that abiotic factors might be involved in the disease. Water stress has been proposed to be one of the factors influencing esca symptom manifestation but the specific role played by water stress on esca development is unknown. We conducted a proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy-based metabolomic study aiming at unveiling drought-induced modifications in xylem sap composition that could contribute to esca-related infection progression. Vitis vinifera 'Chardonnay' plants were inoculated with Phaeomoniella chlamydospora or Phaeoacremonium minimum and exposed to water stress. Using this approach, 28 metabolites were identified in xylem sap. The results show that water stress induces a concentration increase of most metabolites in xylem sap. An average increase >100% was found for asparagine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, tyrosine, valine, sarcosine, and trigonelline. The increase of these compounds seems to be also modulated by fungal infection. This study offers further support to the putative role of drought in esca expression, and opens new avenues of research by extending the current knowledge about metabolites possibly involved in esca disease.