Although it is well-established that young children experience significant psychopathology, diagnostic decisions continue to be challenging, in part due to the way impairment is understood, defined, and measured. Most existing clinical tools assess impairment in an individualized manner, whereas for many young children, impairment is more accurately conceptualized as a family-oriented, multidimensional construct, impacting various parental and family activities. Two studies were completed using the Family Life Impairment Scale (FLIS), a multidimensional parent-report measure of family and associated impairment designed for young children. In Study 1, factor analysis was used in a large (n = 945) representative sample (23-48 months of age). FLIS associations with measures of parent and child well-being were explored to investigate convergent validity. Study 2 was completed in a sample (n = 174) of young children (18-33 months of age) diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders to explore factorial consistency in a clinical sample. Study 1 yielded evidence of a four-factor solution, including parent impairment (affecting parental well-being), family impairment (affecting family activities and routines), childcare impairment (affecting challenges with childcare), and positive growth (parental learning and growth associated with the child's problem). Evidence of convergent validity was also found, as factors were differentially associated with established measures of child symptoms and parent stress. Factor structure was supported in the clinical sample. Results support both the factorial structure and clinical utility of the FLIS for use across clinical and nonclinical populations of young children.