Optimization of Field and Laboratory Sample Processing for Characterization of Metallic Residues at Military Training Ranges.

Academic Article


  • Military ranges are unlike many waste sites because the contaminants, both energetics and metals, are heterogeneously distributed in soil during explosive detonation or ballistic impact and cannot be readily characterized using conventional grab sampling. The Incremental Sampling Methodology (ISM) has been successful for characterization of energetic contamination in soils, but no published ISM processing studies for soils with small arms range metals such as Pb, Cu, Sb, and Zn exists. This study evaluated several ISM sample-processing steps: (1) field splitting to reduce the sample mass shipped to the analytical laboratory, (2) necessity of milling, and (3) processing a larger subsample mass for digestion in lieu of milling. Cone-and-quartering and rotary sectorial splitting techniques yielded poor precision and positively skewed distributions. Hence, an increase in digestion mass from 2 to 10 g was evaluated with milled and unmilled samples. Unmilled samples yielded results with the largest variability regardless of aliquot mass.
  • Authors

  • Clausen, JL
  • Georgian, T
  • Gardner, Kevin
  • Douglas, TA
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • May 2018
  • Keywords

  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Heterogeneity
  • Incremental sampling
  • Metals
  • Metals, Heavy
  • Military Personnel
  • Small-arms range
  • Soil
  • Soil Pollutants
  • Weapons
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 29532132
  • Start Page

  • 603
  • End Page

  • 608
  • Volume

  • 100
  • Issue

  • 5