Heterogeneous Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms in Late Middle Age: Critical Period, Accumulation, and Social Mobility Life Course Perspectives.

Academic Article


  • OBJECTIVE: This study investigated patterns of depressive symptoms and whether socioeconomic status (SES) across the life course affects these trajectories using the critical period, accumulation, and social mobility models. METHOD: This study uses data from 8,532 adults, age 51 to 64, collected over 12 years from the Health and Retirement Study (observations = 25,887). A latent class analysis was performed to examine distinct depressive symptom trajectories; life course models were studied with multinomial logistic regression. RESULTS: Four heterogeneous latent classes were identified for depression: Declining, Low, Increasing, and High and Increasing. The High and Increasing group was associated with a disadvantaged childhood SES, accumulated exposure to socioeconomic risks, and persistent SES disadvantage supporting the three life course models. DISCUSSION: There was evidence of distinct profiles of depressive symptoms in late middle age and of interrelated life course mechanisms underlying the influences of childhood SES on later life depression.
  • Authors

  • Kwon, Eunsun
  • Kim, BoRin
  • Lee, Hyunjoo
  • Park, Sojung
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • August 2018
  • Published In


  • Adverse Childhood Experiences
  • Depression
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Latent Class Analysis
  • Life History Traits
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Retirement
  • Social Class
  • Social Mobility
  • heterogeneous trajectories of depressive symptoms
  • late middle age
  • life course
  • socioeconomic status
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 28553816
  • Start Page

  • 1011
  • End Page

  • 1041
  • Volume

  • 30
  • Issue

  • 7