BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study focuses on vulnerable elders (i.e., those with moderate or low incomes who live alone) and examines to what extent a senior housing environment moderates the effects of multiple chronic conditions (MCCs) on hospitalization over time. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data came from six waves (2002-2012) of the Health Retirement Study (N = 1,401 individuals, 3,705 observations). Mixed-effect multinomial logistic regression modeling estimated the effects of senior housing on changes in hospitalization. RESULTS: Vulnerable elders with MCCs were more likely to be hospitalized at both moderate and heavy levels at baseline. Consistent with the environment docility hypothesis, findings show that older individuals with MCCs who live in a senior housing environment have fewer hospitalizations over time. DISCUSSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: As one of the first efforts to build empirical knowledge on health care use among vulnerable elders in senior housing, our findings underscore the importance of continued research into these environments as a possible alternative to existing models.