Inadequacy of Conventional Grab Sampling for Remediation Decision-Making for Metal Contamination at Small-Arms Ranges.

Academic Article


  • Research shows grab sampling is inadequate for evaluating military ranges contaminated with energetics because of their highly heterogeneous distribution. Similar studies assessing the heterogeneous distribution of metals at small-arms ranges (SAR) are lacking. To address this we evaluated whether grab sampling provides appropriate data for performing risk analysis at metal-contaminated SARs characterized with 30-48 grab samples. We evaluated the extractable metal content of Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn of the field data using a Monte Carlo random resampling with replacement (bootstrapping) simulation approach. Results indicate the 95% confidence interval of the mean for Pb (432 mg/kg) at one site was 200-700 mg/kg with a data range of 5-4500 mg/kg. Considering the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency screening level for lead is 400 mg/kg, the necessity of cleanup at this site is unclear. Resampling based on populations of 7 and 15 samples, a sample size more realistic for the area yielded high false negative rates.
  • Authors

  • Clausen, JL
  • Georgian, T
  • Gardner, Kevin
  • Douglas, TA
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • January 2018
  • Keywords

  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Environmental Restoration and Remediation
  • Grab sampling
  • Heterogeneity
  • Metals
  • Metals, Heavy
  • Residue
  • Small-arms range
  • Soil
  • Soil Pollutants
  • Weapons
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 29299633
  • Start Page

  • 147
  • End Page

  • 154
  • Volume

  • 100
  • Issue

  • 1