Replacing ground corn with incremental amounts of liquid molasses does not change milk enterolactone but decreases production in dairy cows fed flaxseed meal.

Academic Article


  • We investigated the effects of replacing ground corn (GRC) with incremental amounts of liquid molasses (LM) on milk enterolactone concentration, antioxidant enzymes activity in plasma, production, milk fatty acid (FA) profile, and nutrient utilization in Jersey cows fed flaxseed meal and low-starch diets. Sixteen multiparous organically certified Jersey cows averaging (mean ± standard deviation) 101 ± 45 d in milk, 462 ± 38 kg of body weight, and 19.8 ± 3.90 kg/d of milk in the beginning of the study were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design, with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. Diets were fed as total mixed rations consisting (dry matter basis) of 52% grass-legume baleage, 8% grass hay, 8.5% soyhulls, 2.5% roasted soybean, 15% flaxseed meal, and 2% minerals-vitamins premix. The GRC-to-LM dietary ratios (dry matter basis) were 12:0, 8:4, 4:8, and 0:12. Orthogonal polynomials were used to test linear, quadratic, and cubic effects using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The milk concentration of enterolactone tended to respond cubically, thus suggesting that replacing GRC with LM did not affect this lignan in milk. The plasma activities of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not differ, but superoxide dismutase activity tended to respond cubically with feeding increasing amounts of LM. Dry matter intake and yields of milk and milk fat, true protein, and lactose decreased linearly with substituting GRC for LM. Whereas the concentrations of milk fat and milk true protein did not differ across treatments, milk lactose content decreased linearly. Feeding incremental levels of LM reduced linearly the milk concentration of urea N and the amount of N excreted in urine, and tended to decrease linearly the concentration of plasma urea N. Apparent total-tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral and acid detergent fiber did not differ across treatments, whereas digestibility of crude protein decreased linearly. Digestibility of starch responded linearly and quadratically, but the actual differences between treatments were too small to be biologically significant. Milk FA profile was substantially changed most notably by linear increases in cis-9,trans-11 18:2, cis-9,cis-12,cis-15 18:3, Σ odd-chain FA, and the trans-11-to-trans-10 ratio, and linear decreases in cis-9 18:1 and cis-9,cis-12 18:2 when replacing GRC by incremental amounts of LM.
  • Authors

  • Ghedini, CP
  • Moura, DC
  • Santana, RAV
  • Oliveira, AS
  • Brito, Andre
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • March 2018
  • Published In


  • 4-Butyrolactone
  • Animal Feed
  • Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants
  • Cattle
  • Diet
  • Digestion
  • Fatty Acids
  • Female
  • Lactation
  • Lignans
  • Milk
  • Molasses
  • Random Allocation
  • Zea mays
  • antioxidant
  • lignan
  • organic dairy
  • public health
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 29274976
  • Start Page

  • 2096
  • End Page

  • 2109
  • Volume

  • 101
  • Issue

  • 3