Applying Incremental Sampling Methodology to Soils Containing Heterogeneously Distributed Metallic Residues to Improve Risk Analysis.

Academic Article


  • This study compares conventional grab sampling to incremental sampling methodology (ISM) to characterize metal contamination at a military small-arms-range. Grab sample results had large variances, positively skewed non-normal distributions, extreme outliers, and poor agreement between duplicate samples even when samples were co-located within tens of centimeters of each other. The extreme outliers strongly influenced the grab sample means for the primary contaminants lead (Pb) and antinomy (Sb). In contrast, median and mean metal concentrations were similar for the ISM samples. ISM significantly reduced measurement uncertainty of estimates of the mean, increasing data quality (e.g., for environmental risk assessments) with fewer samples (e.g., decreasing total project costs). Based on Monte Carlo resampling simulations, grab sampling resulted in highly variable means and upper confidence limits of the mean relative to ISM.
  • Authors

  • Clausen, JL
  • Georgian, T
  • Gardner, Kevin
  • Douglas, TA
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • January 2018
  • Keywords

  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Heterogeneity
  • Metallic residue
  • Metals
  • Risk Assessment
  • Small-arms range
  • Soil
  • Soil Pollutants
  • Soil sampling
  • Spatial statistical analysis
  • Upper confidence limit
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 29270645
  • Start Page

  • 155
  • End Page

  • 161
  • Volume

  • 100
  • Issue

  • 1