Nutrition practice in burn injury requires a multifaceted approach aimed at providing metabolic support during a heightened inflammatory state, while accommodating surgical and medical needs of the patient. Nutritional assessment and determination of nutrient requirements is challenging, particularly given the metabolic disarray that frequently accompanies inflammation. Nutritional therapy requires careful decision making, regarding the safe use of enteral or parenteral nutrition and the aggressiveness of nutrient delivery given the severity of the patient's illness and response to treatment. With the discovery that specific nutrients can actually alter the course of disease, the role of nutrition support in critical illness has shifted from one of preventing malnutrition to one of disease modulation. Today the use of glutamine, arginine, essential fatty acids, and other nutritional factors for their effects on immunity and cell regulation is becoming more common, although the evidence is often lagging. An exciting dichotomy exits, forcing nutrition support specialists to make responsible choices while remaining open to new potential helpful therapeutic options.