In an effort to prepare electrically conductive nanofiber and nanotube materials, polypyrrole/poly(methyl methacrylate) coaxial fibers have been prepared using polymer fibers produced from an electrospinning process. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) fibers with an average diameter of 230 nm were initially fabricated by electrospinning as core materials. The PMMA fibers were subsequently coated as templates with a thin layer of polypyrrole (PPy) by in-situ deposition of the conducting polymer from aqueous solution. Hollow PPy tubes were produced by dissolution of the PMMA core from PPy/PMMA coaxial fibers. High-temperature (1000 degrees C) treatment under inert atmosphere converted PPy/PMMA coaxial fibers into carbon tubes by complete decomposition of PMMA fiber core and carbonization of the PPy wall. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the formation of the PPy/PMMA coaxial fibers, PPy tubes, and carbon tubes.