Women's Work and Working Conditions: Are Mothers Compensated for Lost Wages?

Academic Article


  • Few studies have analyzed variation in the motherhood wage penalty by the sex composition of women’s jobs. This study draws on nationally representative data to investigate the motherhood wage penalty for women who work in female-dominated, male-dominated, and integrated jobs. Fixed-effects estimates reveal that women who work in female-dominated jobs pay a larger motherhood wage penalty than women who work in other jobs. This larger penalty is not offset by measurable compensating differentials, such as flexible scheduling or part-time work hours.
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • May 2012
  • Has Subject Area

    Published In


  • compensating differentials
  • earnings
  • gender
  • motherhood
  • sex segregation
  • wages
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Start Page

  • 115
  • End Page

  • 138
  • Volume

  • 39
  • Issue

  • 2