Planning for Pedestrians and Bicyclists: Results From a Statewide Municipal Survey.

Academic Article


  • BACKGROUND: We surveyed North Carolina (NC) municipalities to document the presence of municipal walking- and bicycling-related projects, programs, and policies; to describe whether prevalence of these elements differed if recommended in a plan; and to characterize differences between urban and rural municipalities. METHODS: We surveyed all municipalities with ≥ 5000 persons (n = 121) and sampled municipalities with < 5000 persons (216/420), with a response rate of 54% (183/337). Responses were weighted to account for the sampling design. RESULTS: From a list provided, staff reported on their municipality's use of walking- and bicycling-related elements (8 infrastructure projects, 9 programs, and 14 policies). The most commonly reported were projects on sidewalks (53%), streetscape improvements (51%), bicycle/walking paths (40%); programs for cultural/recreational/health (25%), general promotional activities (24%), Safe Routes to School (24%), and law enforcement (24%); and policies on maintenance (64%), new facility construction (57%), and restricted automobile speed or access (45%). Nearly all projects, programs, or policies reported were more likely if included in a plan and more prevalent in urban than rural municipalities. CONCLUSION: These results provide cross-sectional support that plans facilitate the implementation of walking and bicycling elements, and that rural municipalities plan and implement these elements less often than urban municipalities.
  • Authors

  • Evenson, Kelly R
  • Aytur, Semra
  • Satinsky, Sara B
  • Kerr, Zachary Y
  • Rodríguez, Daniel A
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • September 2011
  • Has Subject Area


  • active living
  • active travel
  • bicycle plan
  • environment
  • pedestrian plan
  • physical activity
  • policy
  • recreation
  • rural
  • school
  • urban design
  • walking
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 28829704
  • Start Page

  • S275
  • End Page

  • S284
  • Volume

  • 8
  • Issue

  • s2