MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the regulation of many cellular processes including hematopoiesis, with the aberrant expression of differentiation-stage specific miRNA associated with lymphomagenesis. miRNA profiling has been essential for understanding the underlying biology of many hematological malignancies; however the miRNA signature of the diverse tumor clone associated with Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia (WM), consisting of B lymphocytes, plasmacytes and lymphoplasmacytic cells, has not been characterized. We have investigated the expression of over 13 000 known and candidate miRNAs in both CD19(+) and CD138(+) WM tumor cells, as well as in their malignant and non-malignant counterparts. Although neither CD19(+) nor CD138(+) WM cells were defined by a distinct miRNA profile, the combination of all WM cells revealed a unique miRNA transcriptome characterized by the dysregulation of many miRNAs previously identified as crucial for normal B-cell lineage differentiation. Specifically, miRNA-9(*)/152/182 were underexpressed in WM, whereas the expression of miRNA-21/125b/181a/193b/223/363 were notably increased (analysis of variance; P<0.0001). Future studies focusing on the effects of these dysregulated miRNAs will provide further insight into the mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of WM.