Efforts by the Social Security Administration (SSA) to help beneficiaries of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) return to work have had limited success. The Early Intervention project represents the first initiative by SSA in which SSDI applicants will be provided temporary inducements and return-to-work services. Inducements will include a 1-year cash stipend and public health insurance for 3 years. Early Intervention is expected to be successful because it will focus on SSDI applicants who have not been detached from the labor force as long as persons already receiving benefits. The magnitude of this success, however, will depend on (a) the ability to screen for applicants who are likely to become SSDI beneficiaries and to go back to work and (b) the provision of adequate inducements and services. As the first return-to-work initiative targeted at SSDI applicants, the Early Intervention project is expected to provide valuable information to policymakers, researchers, and other interest groups.