Genetic studies of flower color in Anagallis monelli L.

Academic Article


  • Wild Anagallis monelli exhibits blue or orange flower colors in geographically isolated populations. A new red flower color was developed through breeding, and a three-gene model was proposed for the inheritance of flower color in this species. In this study, blue and orange wild diploid accessions were used as parents to develop six F2 populations (n = 19 to 64). Sexual compatibility between blue and orange wild individuals was low with only 29% of the hybridizations producing F1 individuals. Six of 14 cross combinations between F1 siblings produced fruits, and fruiting success ranged from 55% to 90%. The number of seeds per fruit averaged 14.1 and germination rates for the F2s were low (16.8% to 30.7%). In three of six F2 populations obtained, flower color segregation ratios for orange, blue, and red were not significantly different from the expected ratios under a previously proposed three-gene model. White flower color was obtained as a fourth color variant in two of the remaining F2 populations. For one of these populations, segregation ratios were not significantly different from expected ratios for an expanded four-gene model. White flowers did not contain anthocyanidins, suggesting that there was a mutation in the early stage of the anthocyanin pathway. Orange flower color was found to be primarily the result of pelargonidin, blue to malvidin, and red to delphinidin. These three pigments may be present simultaneously, and their ratios play a significant role in determining flower color. Other factors such as copigments, metal ions, or a different molecular conformation of the anthocyanin could also be involved in flower color determination.
  • Authors

  • Quintana, Andrea
  • Freyre, Rosanna
  • Davis, Thomas
  • Griesbach, Robert J
  • Status

    Publication Date

  • October 2008
  • Has Subject Area


  • Myrsinaceae
  • Primulaceae
  • anthocyanidins
  • anthocyanins
  • delphinidin
  • genetic segregation ratios
  • malvidin
  • pelargonidin
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Start Page

  • 1680
  • End Page

  • 1685
  • Volume

  • 43
  • Issue

  • 6