OBJECTIVES: To develop a comprehensive inventory of state physical education (PE) legislation, examine trends in bill introduction, and compare bill factors. METHODS: State PE legislation from January 2001 to July 2007 was identified using a legislative database. Analysis included components of evidence-based school PE from the Community Guide and other authoritative sources: minutes in PE, PE activity, teacher certification, and an environmental element, including facilities and equipment. Researchers abstracted information from each bill and a composite list was developed. RESULTS: In total, 781 bills were analyzed with 162 enacted. Of the 272 bills that contained at least 1 evidence-based element, 43 were enacted. Only 4 bills included all 4 evidence-based elements. Of these 4, 1 was enacted. Funding was mentioned in 175 of the bills introduced (37 enacted) and an evaluation component was present in 172 of the bills (49 enacted). CONCLUSIONS: Based on this analysis, we showed that PE is frequently introduced, yet the proportion of bills with evidence-based elements is low. Future research is needed to provide the types of evidence required for development of quality PE legislation.