Quantifying genetic kinship and parentage is critical to understanding the adaptive consequences of sociality. To measure fitness in a species with variable group structure, we isolated 14 microsatellite loci from Octodon degus, a semi-fossorial rodent endemic to Chile. The number of alleles per locus ranged from four to 14. Thirteen loci were in Hardy-Weinberg proportions, with values of observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.550 to 0.950. These markers provide the basis for future studies of the direct fitness consequences of sociality in O. degus.