Jennifer Spindel is an assistant professor of political science at the University of New Hampshire. She received her Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. Her research focuses on international security, foreign policy, alliances, and civil-military relations, and she is interested in how political actors signal their intentions and beliefs. Her current book project argues that states use arms transfers to send signals about their political alignment, even when the weapon does not affect the balance of power. The book draws on fieldwork she conducted at international weapons exhibitions, as well as documents she collected from U.S. national and presidential archives.